رایتینگ ترکیبی تافل
چندی پیش مطلبی را منتشر کردیم که نمونه سوالی از رایتینگ مستقل تافل بود ( از اینجا بخوانید). این بار به سراغ رایتینگ ترکیبی تافل می رویم. در این تسک شما با توجه به یک متن ریدینگ و یک لکچر در قالب لیسنینگ یک مقاله بنویسید. شما باید در حین خواندن متن و شنیدن لکچر نت برداری کنید. این دو معمولا نظراتی متناقض درباره یک موضوع را مطرح میکنند. در مقاله شما باید خلاصه ای از آنچه شنیدید و خواندید را بنویسید. در ادامه ابتدا ریدینگ را بخوانید سپس متن لکچر شنیداری را بخوانید. پس از آن به سراغ نمونه پاسخ بروید. برای نکاتی در مورد تسک های رایتینگ تافل به اینجا سری بزنید.
Easter Island, located in the Pacific Ocean about 4000 miles from the coast of Chile, is one of the most isolated places in the world. It is best known for the Moai, monolithic statues of human figures carved from volcanic rock and located around the island. While today the Moai are a great source of revenue from tourists who flock to the island, research suggests that their construction actually led to the decline and eventual collapse of the island’s culture.
First of all, evidence suggests that the obsession which the people of Easter Island had with building the Moai led to non-productive use of natural resources, specifically of the island’s forests. The Moai were huge, with some weighing nearly eighty tons. Moving them from the quarries where they were carved to their intended resting spots required the use of wooden tracks equipped with log rollers. The islanders cut down vast amounts of valuable trees for no other purpose that to move the statues across their island.
Moai construction continued for centuries and eventually every single tree on the island was cut down to build the aforementioned tracks. This complete deforestation had disastrous effects on the island. Migratory birds, which had been a big part of the islander’s diet stopped coming to Easter Island. Meanwhile, the fishing industry on the island collapsed because the leaves of the island’s palm trees had been used to construct fishing boats. In addition, soil erosion caused by the lack of trees made it difficult to even grown food.
Finally, the above issues lead to a major population decline. From a high of twenty thousand people at the peak of its civilization, only two thousand people remained when European explorers first reached Easter Island in the eighteenth century. This mass die-off was clearly a result of the food shortage described above. Human remains from the period suggest that the population descended into cannibalism as things got progressively worse over the years.
متن نوشتاری لکچر
Most people are aware of the Moai of Easter Island, as thousands of tourists flock to see them every year. Fewer people know, however, about the people who built them and of the rise and fall of their civilization. The reading suggests that society on the island collapsed as a result of the construction of the Moai, but recent research suggests that this was not the case at all.
The first issue suggested in the reading passage, that the islanders cut down their valuable forests to build tracks to move the Moai, is simply not true. More recent research suggests that the Moai were moved using a series of ropes. Teams consisting of dozens of men fastened ropes to either side of the Moai and, well, walked them to their places by tilting them from side to side as they walked forward. This method required no trees to be cut down and has actually been replicated by modern teams using actual Moai from the period.
Further, the reading passage notes that the construction of the Moai eventually led to the complete deforestation of the island. While it is true that the island was completely lacking trees by the time the first European explorers arrived, this was not the result of Moai construction. Recently, palm seeds have been excavated which date from the period when the island was heavily forested and all of them show signs of having been gnawed on by rats. Coincidentally, the first settlers on the island, who arrived by boat, brought rats with them as food. It has been theorized that over the years the rats had a deadly effect on the island’s palm trees and THAT was the cause of the deforestation.
Finally, the claim that the population of the island was in decline when Europeans arrived is also faulty. While the author suggests that the population peaked at twenty thousand, this figure is just an old guess based on the assumption that the island was first settled in 400 AD. Recent carbon dating indicates that the island was actually settled at around 1200 AD. If this is the case, there simply would not have been time for a population of twenty thousand to be established. It is likely that the two thousand people encountered by European arrivals was the largest population that the island ever supported.
The reading and the lecture are both about the Moai of Easter Island. The author of the reading believes that the construction of the Moai led to the collapse of the civilization located there. The lecturer casts doubt on the claims made in the article. She thinks that the society on the island did not suffer as a result of the construction of the Moai.
First of all, the author claims that the people of the island cut down vast amounts of valuable trees in order to build the statues. He notes that the Moai were moved across the island using wooden tracks and log rollers. This point is challenged by the lecturer. She says that islanders used a series of ropes to walk the statues to their intended locations. Furthermore, she points out that this method did not require any trees and has even been replicated by teams of modern researchers.
Secondly, the author states that eventually every tree on the island was cut down. He argues that without any trees, migratory birds stopped visiting the island and the people were no longer able to feed themselves. This argument is rebutted by the lecturer. She suggests that palm seeds that date from the time period show evidence of having been chewed on by rats. She elaborates on this by mentioning that the original inhabitants of the island brought rats with them as food, and that they were the main cause of deforestation on the island.
Finally, the author mentions that the problems described above eventually led to a major population collapse. He is of the opinion that the population of Easter Island fell from a high of twenty thousand down to a low of just two thousand when European explorers first arrived. The lecturer, on the other hand, feels that Easter Island never supported a population of twenty thousand. She puts forth the idea that this estimate was based on an old misunderstanding of when the island was originally settled and that there were never more than two thousand people living there.