گرامر پیشرفته: Discourse markers :so, right, okay
Discourse markers are words or phrases like anyway, right, okay, as I say, to begin with. We use them to connect, organise and manage what we say or write or to express attitude:
[friends are talking]
So, I’ve decided I’m going to go to the bank and ask for a car loan.B:
That sounds like a good idea.C:
Well, you need a car.B:
Anyway, I was wondering if either of you would teach me how to drive.
The discourse markers in this extract have a number of uses:so marks the beginning of a new part of the conversation.
well marks a change in the focus (from getting a car loan to needing a car).
right marks a response (B is agreeing with C).
anyway marks a shift in topic (from buying a new car to having driving lessons).
Discourse markers that organise what we say
Some discourse markers are used to start and to end conversations. Some are used to start new topics or to change topics.
Starting a conversation or talk
Right, let’s get started. We need to get the suitcases into the car.B:
Okay. I’ll do that. Katie, will you help me?
[at the start of a radio interview]
Now, we have with us in the studio today someone you will all know from television. John Rice, welcome to the show.
Ending a conversation
[A mother (A) and daughter (B) on the telephone]
So we’ll see you Sunday, Liz.B:
Right, okay Mum.
Okay, see you then, love.B:
Bye, Mum. Thanks for calling.A:
[At the end of a meeting]
Anyway, is that it? Has anyone got any questions?B:
No. I think we’re done.A:
Right, fine, thanks everyone for coming. We’ll circulate the documents tomorrow and make some follow-up calls about the project.