نکات مربوط به “adjectives” در زبان انگلیسی!

  نکات مربوط به "adjectives" در زبان انگلیسی!

 نکات مربوط به “adjectives” در زبان انگلیسی!

 نکات مربوط به “adjectives” در زبان انگلیسی!

Unlike in many other languages, adjectives in English do not change (agree) with the noun that they modify:

All new foreign students are welcome to join the clubs and societies.

Not: All new foreigns students …

Every room was painted in different colours.

Not: … in differents colours.

Identifying adjectives

There is no general rule for making adjectives. We know they are adjectives usually by what they do (their function) in a sentence. However, some word endings (suffixes) are typical of adjectives.

I hate windy days.

San Francisco is a very hilly place.

Some words ending in -ly can be both adjectives and adverbs. These include daily, early, monthly, weekly, nightly, yearly:

Adjective: She gets a weekly payment from her parents. (She gets money every week.)

Adverb: I pay my rent weekly. (I pay my rent every week.)

Some words ending in -ly are only adjectives and not adverbs. These include: costly, cowardly, deadly, friendly, likely, lonely, lovely, oily, orderly, scholarly, silly, smelly, timely, ugly, woolly.

We enjoyed the trip to America but it was a costly holiday.

Oily fish is very healthy because it contains omega 3.

We do not use these endings with two-syllable adjectives ending in a stressed syllable nor with longer adjectives with more than two syllables. The comparatives and superlatives of these adjectives are formed using more and most.

base form

comparative

superlative

complete

more complete Not: completer

most complete Not: completest

interesting

more interesting

Not: interestinger

most interesting

Not: interestingest

Adjectives: with –ing and –ed (interestinginterested)

We use the –ing and –ed forms of regular and irregular verbs as adjectives:

-ing forms

verb

example

annoy

My brother is five and he’s so annoying.

amaze

The Grand Canyon is an amazing place.

boil

Be careful! That’s boiling water!

excite

This film is not very exciting, is it?

-ed forms

verb

example

bore

Why do teenagers always look bored?

pack

James Bond movies are always actionpacked.

smoke

Not everyone likes smoked salmon.

make

My dress is hand-made. I really like it.

teach

My Master’s degree was a taught course.

excite

I feel excited about my new job.

Adjectives with –ing and –ed endings have different meanings.

ing adjectives

ing adjectives describe the effect

-ed adjectives

-ed adjectives describe how a person feels

The meeting was very boring.

That was an exciting game.

It was shocking to see what the storm had done to the house.

I felt bored at the meeting.

We were really excited about the game.

We were shocked to see what the storm had done to the house.

Warning:

Commonly confused pairs of adjectives ending in –ing and –ed are: interestinginterestedboringboredexcitingexcitedembarrassingembarrassed.

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