نکاتی که باید بدانید: Conjunctions

گرامر پیشرفته: ?First, firstly or at first

نکاتی که باید بدانید: Conjunctions

Conjunctions are linking words like and, or, but, then and because:

They knocked down all the houses and they built a car park.

Are there four or five people living in that house?

My shoes look great but are not very comfortable.

And, but, either … or, etc. (coordinating conjunctions)

Coordinating conjunctions connect items which are the same grammatical type, e.g. words, phrases, clauses. The most common coordinating conjunctions are and, or, but.

Connecting words

Which do you prefer? [word]Red or [word]blue?

Connecting phrases

The meal was [phrase]very expensive and [phrase]not very nice.

connecting clauses

[clause]There are seats outside but [clause]some people don’t like sitting outdoors.

Connecting sentences

My grandmother’s name was Wall. But she became Jenkins when she got married to my grandfather. (In very formal writing, we don’t normally start a sentence with but.)

Connecting prefixes

[prefix]Pro- and [prefix]anti-government supporters waited outside the parliament.

Two-word conjunctions

Some coordinating conjunctions have two parts: either … or …, neither … nor …, both … and …:

You can drink chocolate milk either hot in the winter or cold in the summer.

Neither Lisa nor Helena had been to Italy before. (Lisa hadn’t been to Italy before and Helena hadn’t been to Italy before.)

Both you and I know what really happened. (You know and I know what happened.)

Warning:

Apart from two-word conjunctions, we only use one conjunction to connect words or phrases:

Because my alarm didn’t go off, I was late for work.

Not: Because my alarm didn’t go off, so I was late for work.

 

مطالب مرتبط

تسک 1 رایتینگ آیلتس: paraphrasing examples

گرامر پیشرفته: Discourse markers :so, right, okay

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